This year, as in previous years’water scarcity‘it was replaced by other problems with the snow and rain falling. Water scarcity, which is a global problem, is among the five biggest global risks affecting the lives of living things.
In regions with water scarcity, the situation can become very grim. Traditional sources such as snowfall, rain and easily accessible groundwater are affected by climate change, and the water mass decreases as the human population increases. Although global warming, which is another human-induced problem, is encountered here, water resources used unconsciously are another factor that causes water shortage. So what if we could use technology to solve this problem?
Technologies to solve water scarcity
Water is critical for sustainable development in countries with water scarcity. There may even be a potential cause of social unrest and conflict that follows. Water scarcity also affects traditional seasonal human migration. Countries suffering from water shortages need a radical change in planning and management. Meeting this with technology through the creative use of unconventional water resources possible.
We have a variety of water resources that can be used, from the seabed to the upper atmosphere of the Earth. A wide variety of technological interventions and innovations are needed to make the most of these resources. The first of these is the method called ‘Catching Fog’, which can be translated into Turkish as ‘catching the fog’. There is some water buried in the fog.
Fog is increasingly seen as a source of drinking water in dry areas where it is dense and occurs regularly. Fog can be collected using a vertical system that interrupts the droplet flow. The water obtained from here can then be collected in a water collection, storage and distribution system. Different materials can be used in fog collection operations. This method is said to work in dry, mountainous and coastal areas. Currently, there are regions where fog water collection projects are actively implemented. These include countries such as Chile, Israel and Oman.
Another method is through the natural cloud. The cloud seeding / feeding method called Cloud Seeding is based on improving rainfall. Thanks to this technology, which aims to increase the volume of water collection from the air, small particles are dispersed into the clouds and the environment. These particles act as a starting point for raindrops or ice crystals and support their formation. This increases the likelihood of rain or snowfall. It is said that with this method, precipitation can increase by 20 percent.
Solutions for global warming and water scarcity can actually be called common.
Another method is to minimize evaporation. Since dry areas receive little rainfall, some action is required here. Here, too, we come across two main types of micro-catchment rainwater collection systems. One is water harvesting through roof systems where runoff is collected and stored in tanks or similar devices, and another is water harvesting for agriculture, which involves collecting rainwater flowing from a catchment into a small pond or cultivated field.
Desalination of sea water, which has been on the agenda for years, is still being recorded as a very costly process. Seawater desalination is growing faster due to advances in membrane technology and materials science. These advances are predicted to cause a significant reduction in production costs by 2030.
Icebergs can potentially be a source of water. Pulling the iceberg from polar ice caps to a water-scarce country may not seem like a practical solution to water scarcity. But scientists, academics, and politicians consider the iceberg harvest as a potential source of freshwater. For this reason, important studies being done.
Water and climate change are interdependent, so climate change increases the likelihood of extreme droughts in dry areas. Harnessing the potential of unconventional water resources can help increase the resilience of water-scarce communities to climate change while diversifying water supply resources.
To read the global risk report this to the link you can click.